Adnexitis is an inflammatory disease that generally affects the fallopian tubes and ovaries, but can also harm uterus. When inflammation affects the uterus, the condition is called metroadnexitis. Adnexitis is among the most common diseases of female genitalia.
Infertility and ectopic pregnancy are two of the complications of untreated adnexitis.
Adnexitis is not contagious, but the infection that causes it, yes. Therefore, it is indicated that also the sexual partner of the person infected to undergo an inspection and, if necessary, to follow specific treatment prescribed by a doctor, also respecting the rules of personal hygiene and protective measures during sexual intercourse.
Causes. Adnexitis can be acute or chronic. In both cases, the inflammation is most often caused by bacterial, and viral, fungal, parasitic infections. For example, the bacterium Chlamydia infection is often associated with adnexitis and it is one of the most dangerous and can cause ectopic pregnancy (extrauterine pregnancy) or infertility.
There is the well-known myth that adnexitis is due to the cold, but medical statistics show that low temperature is only a contributing factor, which may overlap the existing pathology, it not being actually a direct cause of the inflammation.
Among the bacteria most commonly associated with the production of pelvic inflammatory disease (pelvic area) are: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Mycoplasma, Staphylococcus (spherical bacteria whose individuals are grouped as clusters, producing local suppurative processes, abscesses, or generalized - sepsis) and streptococcus (spherical or oval bacteria, found in groups arranged like chains, pathogen agent of serious infections).
Risk factors of adnexitis are: interventions at the level of uterus, unprotected sex or during menstruation, and the existence of multiple sexual partners.
Symptoms. Women suffering of Adnexitis feel:
-pain in the lower abdomen on one side or bilaterally (pain may be dull or intense);
-lower back pain;
-abundant or unusual vaginal discharge;
-painful sexual intercourse;
-menstrual disorders, particularly by heavy and prolonged bleeding;
-pain at menstruation;
-nausea and vomiting;
Diagnosis. Adnexitis diagnosis is established by the physician after an usual pelvic examination, accompanied by specific analyzes (vaginal discharge examination, transvaginal ultrasound, samples from the cervix and other necessary eventual investigations, decided by the specialized medical staff).
Treatment. Treatment of acute adnexitis is set depending on the cause and consists mainly in antibiotics administration (under medical guidance and supervision), vitamin therapy, possibly nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medication and rest.
Treatment of chronic adnexitis is generally more difficult and long time consuming.